2.1: STATUS – الإعراب
Status is the first of the four properties. Status has to do with the role an إِسْم is playing in a sentence. In Arabic, an إِسْم can have one of three statuses. The status depends on the role the إِسْم is playing.
STATUS #1: THE DOER – رفع
The doer is the one who carries out the action. Take a look at the following examples.
Example 1: I ate too much chocolate
The action here is “ate”. Now ask yourself who it was who ate. It is the speaker “I” who did the action. In this sentence “I” is the doer.
Example 2: My tooth is aching.
The action here is “aching”. Now ask yourself what is doing the aching. It is the tooth. In this sentence “tooth” is the doer.
Example 3: The dentist gave me a filling.
The action here is “gave”. Now ask yourself who is the one who gave. It is the dentist. In this sentence, “dentist” is the doer.
When searching for the doer in a sentence, follow a two-step process:
1. Identify the action
2. Ask yourself “Who is doing the action?”
Note: that it is possible for the doer to be non-human.
رفع is also known as the default status. If there is no reason for an اسم to be put in another status, it remains in the رفع status.
The doer is always in the رَفْعٌ status. The way you say “in the رَفْع status” in Arabic is مَرْفُوْع. Memorise this term and use it.
STATUS #2: THE DETAIL – نَصْب
The detail refers to additional information about the action. When looking for a detail in a sentence, follow a two-step process:
1. Find the action and the doer
2. Everything else in the sentence is a detail
Example 1: Muhammad ate chocolate at home yesterday happily because he was hungry.
· All text in blue above is the Detail.
The detail is always in the نَصْب status. The way you say “in the نَصْب status” in Arabic is مَنْصُوْبٌ. Memorise this term and use it.
STATUS #3: AFTER-OF – جَرّ
After-of is, quite literally, the word that occurs after “of”. Take a look at the following example:
Example 1: advisor of the king
In this fragment, “the king” is the word after “of”.
This status is straightforward and easy to spot. There are some cases, however, in which the “of” is not clear and the sentence must be rearranged to make the “of” easy to spot.
Example 2: “my book” Rearrange it to “book of mine”
The fragment “my book” for instance, can be rearranged to read “book of mine.” In this case, the word “my” or “mine” is the word after of.
How do you know when a fragment needs rearranging? Whenever you see possession (his, hers, my, our etc.), the fragment can be rearranged to show the “of”.
The after-of is always in the جَرّ status. The way you say “in the جَرّ status” in Arabic is مَجْرُوْرٌ. Memorise this term and use it.